15.1. How to make the car ready for the winter
The serviceable car does not demand "winter" preparation. For operation in northern regions of the country and the large cities it is possible only to recommend to hold a number of control and test events and special additional preparation to exclude accidents. Additional preparation, first of all, includes corrective maintenance; it can be facilitated considerably, applying modern means of auto chemical goods and special operational materials.
At winter operation of the car serviceability of the rechargeable battery is of great importance. If "age" of the rechargeable battery installed on the car makes 2–3 years, then in anticipation of winter it is enough to be washed up outside, to clear plugs and to load completely (if the car was constantly operated in the city, the charge of the battery is far from nominal).
If the rechargeable battery is not charged to nominal capacity, then it should be replaced.
By estimates of experts, the average duration of "full-fledged life" of the rechargeable battery makes about 3 years.
To buy the rechargeable battery now does not make a problem: in shops a large number of trademarks and models is presented. What battery to choose — a personal record of everyone. It should be noted that in the market it is possible to allocate two price groups now: batteries worth over $60 (usually to $100), for example Bosch, Steco, American, Fiamm, and at the price below $60 (Mutlu, Inci, Centra, SAEM, etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are caused by more perfect technology of their production. These accumulators, as a rule, belong to the category of unattended. Special types of electrolytes and tight execution of such batteries increase their resource and provide the high starter currents guaranteeing a provorachivaniye of a bent shaft of the engine even at hard frosts. The leading producers now without fail use technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand the periodic service consisting in check of density of electrolyte and measurement of its level.
At the choice of the rechargeable battery pay attention to the following parameters:
– capacity, And · h. According to the maintenance instruction it has to be 55 A · h. It is allowed to use batteries with a capacity of 45-60 And · h. Too small capacity will create problems with "winter" launch of the engine, at too big — the generator will not provide a full charge of the accumulator and its service life will strongly be reduced;
– current of the starter category, And (according to the DIN 43 539 standard). The more its value, the better, especially at winter operation. It is a guarantee that the starter will turn a bent shaft with rather high frequency of rotation and if the engine is not launched from the first attempt, you will have a chance to make the second and third.
Do not buy rechargeable batteries of the southern manufacturing countries: frosts do not happen there and they can have a current of the starter category significantly less, than at the accumulators adapted to conditions of the Russian winter.
Upon purchase of the battery differing from regular pay attention to its size and an arrangement of plugs: buy the accumulator of the same polarity, as old, otherwise wires of your car can not reach plugs.
Density of electrolyte of completely charged rechargeable battery can differ from nominal no more than on 0,02 g/cm3 (tab. 15.1).
Table 15.1 the Temperature amendment to indications of the areometer at measurement of density of electrolyte
Most precisely degree of state of charge of the rechargeable battery can be determined by density of electrolyte, measuring it at a temperature of +25 ° C (tab. 15.2).
The table 15.2 Electrolyte Density at a temperature of 25 °C, g/cm3
When checking the accumulator have to be a special load fork of the indication of the built-in voltmeter 12,5-12,9 B at the disconnected loading and not decrease lower than 11 V at loading during 10 pages. Such battery will serve long and reliably.
If the accumulator was discharged nevertheless at unsuccessful launches of the engine, it is possible to use cables for "prikurivaniye" with contact clips like "crocodile". Upon purchase it is better to choose the cables calculated on big loading (from 200 A).
Use of less viscous winter engine oil significantly facilitates launch of the cold engine. The international classification of SAE J300 contains six classes of winter oils. In designation of "winter" classes there is a letter W (winter — winter).
In a temperate climate it is admissible to apply in the winter the all-weather (universal) engine oils which were widely adopted now (tab. 15.3).
Upon purchase of oils, especially import, it is necessary to be careful of fakes therefore it is the best of all to buy oils in the specialized shops providing certificates on goods.
Table 15.3 of the Characteristic of winter oils
Remember that at intensive city driving oil replacement (and according to an oil filter) should be carried out in strict accordance with the factory maintenance instruction of the car, reducing frequency of replacement by 20% each 50 thousand km of a run, since 100 thousand km. Wash out the lubrication system upon transition to oil of other brand. Various "boilers" which are allegedly warming up the thickened oil in a case do not give any practical effect, except premature failure of the accumulator.
In the cooling system of the engine of your car the special low-freezing liquid — antifreeze is applied (water solution of alcohol, glycol, glycerin and inorganic salts with addition of special additives).
It is strictly forbidden to apply water in the cooling system in the winter. This results from the fact that at turning on of the fan of a heater at full capacity circulation of water through a radiator can stop absolutely and water in a radiator will freeze directly during the movement. At a stop the circulation car through a radiator will not be and the motor "will begin to boil". Besides during the long operation of the cooling system on water in places of strong heating the scum which carries badly out heat is formed. The scum which is formed in the cooling system in one place narrows the section of channels through passage, and in other place owing to corrosion, on the contrary, increases them — it breaks uniformity of a heat transfer, causes local overheats and can lead to deformation of a head of the block of cylinders.
Quite often the power supply system is the reason of unsatisfactory operation of the engine in winter time. And all because of the water condensate which accumulated in the fuel tank. Practically all leading producers of auto chemical goods (STP, Loctite, Wynns, Aspokem) offer the medicines which are filled in in the fuel tank. They gradually clear a power supply system. Will not be superfluous to replace the filter of thin purification of fuel and to be convinced of purity and serviceability of nozzles of the engine.
Before approach of winter do not forget about high-voltage wires. After few years of driving on the roads processed by deicing reagents it is desirable to replace them, it is the best of all on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to temperature drops. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often happens the reason of lack of a spark is not formed. Corrosion or a bad inhaling of plugs of the rechargeable battery can be the banal cause of malfunctions in system of ignition.
The maintenance instruction orders to replace spark plugs through each 10 thousand km. But, considering experience of carrying out repair work, it is better to do it through 5 thousand km or is more often if the car is very tensely operated in the large city or on gasoline of doubtful quality. It is better to apply spark plugs of import producers, such as NGK, Champion and others, allowed to application in the engine of your car.
During the winter period of operation of the car the body as much as possible is exposed to corrosion therefore its anticorrosive processing is very desirable. However, according to the staff of some authorized service stations, for a number of new foreign cars, especially with a galvanized body, factory processing is quite enough.
Anticorrosive processing demands strict observance of technology, and though practically all producers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, after all it is more preferable to carry out processing in the specialized service center. It is worth finding out in advance on what technology it is carried out. Anyway before drawing a sheeting on the bottom and arches the car has to be cleared of dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
Winter operation, especially on the "salted" streets of big cities, repeatedly strengthens corrosion of details of a body. The regular sink is necessary in the winter if the car is stored on the street, and is categorically necessary daily if the car is stored in a warm garage. Water well washes away salt, and the layer of wet dirt very long dries, strengthening adverse effect of salt on a paint and varnish covering of a body. As a last resort wash the car in thaw more often, and before a cold snap wash up and rub off dry, ideally — dry in the warm room. Before winter operation surely carry out additional anticorrosive processing of a body. It is the best of all to carry out such processing in specialized car service with use of special protective equipment and technologies. Anticorrosive processing happens two types: processing of the bottom and hidden cavities of a body and processing of a paint and varnish covering of a body. The last can be executed without effort independently. It includes a sink, drying and processing by special protective structures on the basis of, as a rule, wax or silicone. If when processing a body you find deep scratches, process the bared metal rust solvent (modifier).
Additional plastic flaps reduce abrasive wear of an anticorrosive covering on inside of wings, but at their unqualified installation badly aired cavities between a wing and the flap in which the additional centers of corrosion will appear from behind the getting moisture can be formed.
The right choice of tires for operation during the winter period of time allows to increase traffic safety. Operation of the car during the winter period on summer tires is extremely dangerous and therefore it is inadmissible. The tires intended for operation during the winter period of time according to the drawing of a protector can be divided into the European type (the drawing of a protector consists of the separate checkers or checkers connected in an edge) and the Scandinavian type (the drawing of a protector of the tire with long distance between small checkers that allows to clear a contact spot of friable snow).
At operation of the car during the winter period in the conditions of the city where on roads snow and salt porridge, than the stamped snow or ice most often meets, it is better to use winter tires without thorns: they easier also have resistance to swing, smaller in comparison with snow tires.
It is necessary to know that tires without thorns hold the ice-covered road worse, but on wet asphalt on length of a brake way have indisputable advantages in comparison with snow tires.
If you apply snow tires, change them surely in a set, but be not limited for economy only to forward couple of wheels as it sharply increases probability of failure in a drift of the front-wheel car.
Do not forget that according to requirements of traffic regulations when using snow tires it is necessary to place on back glass a triangular sign with a letter "Sh" to warn other drivers.
In anticipation of winter it is necessary to check screen wipers, having blown and heating of glasses — they have to be serviceable.
The faulty brushes of a screen wiper leaving opaque strips on glass reduce not only comfortableness of a trip, but also safety of the driver. Getting screen wiper brushes, try to choose the brushes recommended by manufacturer and meeting the following requirements:
– qualitatively and evenly clear all covered surface of a windshield and glass of a door of a back of various type of pollution;
– have sufficient wear resistance;
– during the work of brushes on the surface of glass there should not be scratches.
In the conditions of winter operation of the car it is possible to get special brushes which hinges and yokes are protected from frosting by a rubber cover.
For the prevention of loss of mobility of hinges of brushes of a screen wiper during the winter period of time it is not recommended to dilute with water nonfreezing liquid of a screen wiper as brushes are cooled much quicker, than the windshield, and the water which got on them can freeze.
Regularly it is necessary to wash away water dirt and sand from hinges of brushes of a screen wiper.
In order to avoid excessive wear of tapes of brushes it is not necessary to include in the winter a screen wiper until the heater does not warm all glass and will not kindle on it frost.
By preparation of the car for operation during the winter period of time it is necessary to examine a windshield attentively. In the first frost after an autumn rain even the small chip on a windshield will turn into a full-fledged crack. The existing technologies of repair allow to eliminate similar defect without glass removal. It is simpler and cheaper, than replacement flew down.
One more "winter" problem — fogging of glasses. At serviceable system of ventilation arises seldom, however we advise you probrest special liquids-antizapotevateli which are enough to be applied on glass of times a week.